Pashto under Gentoo Linux :: Khyber.ORG

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Pashto under Gentoo Linux, Omar Usman
Published in Khyber.ORG on Monday, June 21 2010 (http://www.khyber.org)


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Marhdaki , Waqas Ahmad

Khado Khel; a small town with a population not exceeding more than one Lac, is situated some 90 kilometres away from Peshawar. A unique feature of its people is that modern amenities of life such as televisions have not affected their age-old traditions. . . . Read More

Revolutionary Songs , Gulzar Alam

Gulzar Alam is a known name affilliated with the Pashto music business. He hails from Charsadda. Born in 1954, Gulzar Alam has sung thousands of songs from poets ranging from Rahman Baba to Ghani Khan. . . . Read More


مونږ چه د مختلفو ژبو د ادب د تاريخ مطالعه کؤو نو داسې ښکاري چه د اکثر آريائي ژبو د ادب آغاز د روحاني واقعاتو داستانونو او د پېريانو او ښاپېرو د قيصو نه شوې دې۔ خو دا د پښتو ژبې اختصاص دې، چه د دې آغاز هم د اسلامي ادب نه شوې دې۔ زمونږ د وړومبي دور ټول ليکونکي لکه بېټ نيکه، شېخ اسماعيل، شېخ عيسا، ملک يار غرشين، او بختيار نه صرف قامي مشران وو . . . نور

حمزه شناسي ، ډاکټر مسعود زاهد

دلوئې حمزه بابا مادى او مرشد حضور باچا خان صاحب به حمزه بابا ته دنيم پښتون قام ذهن وئيلو ملک بابا وائى چې غوث دے او سيدطاهر بخارى صاحب وائى چې ((حمزه بابا فرد دے)) مرادشينوارى ورته دقديم او جديد پښتو ادب په مينځ کښې پل وائى، سمندر خان سمندر ورته دغزل بادشاه وئيلى دى او تقويم الحق کاکاخيل به وې چې حمزه دوخت نه مخکښې پيدا دے. قلندر مومند ورته نابغه او لوګے ميا صيب دبابا پحقله وائى چې : (( فکر ئې احاطه نۀ شى کولے)) سيد جانس باچا او سيد تقى تراب ئې رحمان او خوشحال نه لوئې سړے ګڼى او زما ورور امجد على ورته دپښتنو امام وائى. وزير محمد ګل خان ته به خلقو دپښتو بابا وئيل خو پخپله هغوى به حمزه بابا ته . . . نور


The literary history of Pashto in the Colonial Period is often overlooked. Pashto or Pukhto, like many other oriental languages prospered under the British rule. During that phase most of the existing written literature was produced as a result of English influence. In this article, I shall attempt to chronicle the important literary events under the Raj and the Pashtun Renaissance. . . . Read More


Ali, who is one among the most popular and highly regarded singers of the frontier province of Pakistan, is currently on a two week tour to Doha. Through his deep-throated voice and special style of singing, he has received . . . Read More

Pashto under Gentoo Linux

Omar Usman

Publishing Date: Monday, June 21 2010

Note: The instructions in this write-up are specific to Gentoo distributions only and may/may not work for others. This guide is also work-in progress and will be updated or modified if something new comes along. Last updated: 4 July 2012


General Settings

Gentoo is a "compile by yourself" distribution. All applications are installed through the portage package manager, for which default settings are made in /etc/make.conf. This file should have the following settings:

USE="unicode bidi"
LINGUAS="ar fa ur ps"

The unicode use-flag is for compiling your applications with UTF support, and bidi for bi-directional text support. The Linguas flags can enable arabic, farsi, urdu, or pashto support if the software has support for it. For example, if you compiled libre-office (office suite) without these flags, you may be able to type in Pashto but it will appear as پ ښ ت و but if you compile with the flags, the characters will be joined together as پښتو.

In general, you should also make sure your installation is fully UTF compatible. Follow the instructions in this guide.

Keyboard Layouts

Pashto is now supported by default by almost every operating system. Pre-2005, this was not the case. There were two popular keyboard layouts that could be installed separately. One was Liwal, and the other Khpala Pashto. Liwal produced fonts, keyboard layouts and other software targetting primarily DOS and windows based applications. Their first font for DOS was released as far back as 1992. Liwal produced a total of 25 fonts, and according to an email correspondence (2000) claimed to be working on 250 fonts. However, their layouts and fonts came with a price tag. Khpala Pashtu also produced fonts and keyboard layouts. They produced 7 fonts and a keyboard layout in the late 1990s and are still downloadable even today. Khpala Pashtu was free for individual use. The keyboard layouts by both Liwal and Khpala Pashto are now obsolete as they do not work with OS's after windows XP.

In 2003, a UNDP project "Computer locale requirements for Afghanistan" was the first effort to standardize pashto for usage in computers. The project was also endorsed by the then Afghan ministry of communications. The project team comprised Michael Everson of Evertype, and Roozbeh Pournader of Farsi Web project. For 3-4 years, both Windows and Linux failed to encorporate the standard in their OS's. On Linux, a keymap based on the standard by Emal Alekozai was launched in 2006. In June of 2010, this keymap became part of the xkbd tool. Nowadays, Pashto support on your operating system should be enabled by default.

To select the default layouts, go to System > Preferences > Keyboard, and click on the Layouts tab.

Click the Add button, and select the layout you require.

For those of us like me who are used to the older generation layout of Khpala Pashtu, and are using Linux (Gentoo), please read on.

Download the file af.tar.gz. Open the file af from within the archive. Launch your terminal and edit the file for Afghan layouts (You may require super-user rights for doing this)

nano /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/af

Copy and paste the contents of the downloaded af file into the local file.

Next, modify the file evdev.lst

nano /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/evdev.lst

Search for "Afghanistan". You will find it in the ! variant section where the following entries will already be present:

   ps              af: Pashto
uz af: Uzbek (Afghanistan)
olpc-ps af: Pashto (Afghanistan, OLPC)
fa-olpc af: Persian (Afghanistan, Dari OLPC)
uz-olpc af: Uzbek (Afghanistan, OLPC)

Add the following line below the list:

pash    af: Khyber.ORG (Khpala Pashto)

Next, modify the file evdev.xml

nano /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/evdev.xml

Search for "olpc-ps". You should see the following entry:

      <variant>
<configItem>
<name>olpc-ps</name>

<shortDescription>ps</shortDescription>
<description>Pashto (Afghanistan, OLPC)</description>
<languageList>
<iso639Id>pus</iso639Id>
</languageList>
</configItem>
</variant>

Note that the text is enclosed in the <variant> and </variant> tags. Immediately after this, add the following lines:

      <variant>
<configItem>
<name>pash</name>

<shortDescription>pash</shortDescription>
<description>Khyber.ORG (Khpala Pashto)</description>
<languageList>
<iso639Id>pus</iso639Id>
</languageList>
</configItem>
</variant>

You can now enable the Khpala Pashtu keyboard layout using the screen-shots appearing earlier in this section

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Pashto under Gentoo Linux, Omar Usman
Published in Khyber.ORG on Monday, June 21 2010 (http://www.khyber.org)