The following table gives the figures for the principal castes and tribes of the district:
|Name of Tribe||Pop.|
|Khattaks (inc. Sagri and Bhangi Khel)||66,693|
|Afridis (inc. Adam Khel)||5,801|
|Sheikh & Koreishis||4,337|
|Hindus & Sikhs||12,068|
The Census statistics or caste were not compiled for tahsils, at least in their final form. It was found that an enormous number of mere clans or subdivisions had been returned as castes in the schedules and the classification of these figures under the main heads shown in the caste tables was made for districts only. Thus no statistics showing the local distribution of the tribes and castes are available. But the general distribution of the more important land-owning tribes is indicated below.
Mr. Tucker observes: The fact that in the Census statistics no effort is made to distinguish between temporary visitors and residents, makes the returns much less valuable for district purposes than they otherwise would be. In Kohat the number of Adam Khels, Orakzais, Waziris and Ghilzais who come down for trading purposes is very large, especially in the winter, when the census was taken. Adam Khels and Orakzais are also to a large extent permanently located in the district as cultivators.
The principal tribe in the district are the Khattaks, numbering 66,663. These are distributed as follows:
The Sagri Khattaks, mostly resident in the Shakardarra tappa, number 4,050. There are also 733 Bhangi Khels, who are scattered about Shakardarra and the Teri Tahsil. These are included in the above figures.
Next to the Khattaks come the Bangashes, whose distribution is as follows:
Thus totalling 19,183. There is hardly a Bangash in the Akora tappas. In Baizai though the dominant tribe, yet they are outnumbered by Niazis and other associated tribes.
The Niazais number 4,040. Nearly all in the Baizai and Lower Miranzai areas.
Among Pathans of trans-border tribes the following are numerous:
Afridis are most numerous in Baizai. When the large tracts, now forming the Crown villages of Shahpur, Jarma and Kharmatu, were farmed out at annexation to lessees, the latter located numerous small hamlets of Pass and Jawaki Afridis. The Jawakis also hold Upper Gandiali, and are numerous in the adjoining village of Togh. The Bazid Khels are a Jawaki section, though now separated from the main tribe. In Lower Miranzai, Malik Din Khel Afridis are numerous in the villages of Mirobak and Babar Mela. These are colonies brought down by retired native officers of that tribe. There are scarcely any Afridis in Teri and Upper Miranzai, and very few in the Akora Khattak tappas in spite of their proximity to the Adam Khel country.
Of the Orakzais, according to the Census, 1,384 are in Baizai, most of them being non-residents of the Bazoti and other adjoining tribes who sell wood or grass at Kohat, or come down during the winter with their cattle. In the Samilzai villages towards Kachai there are permanently settled Orakzai cultivators. The Orakzais also occupy numerous small hamlets in Lower Miranzai, especially round Hangu, where there was a large tract of land under the control of the Khan of Hangu, by whom they have been gradually brought down. Many of these hamlets have now been separated off front Hangu Khas and form separate mauzas. Similar hamlets have been formed along the Orakzai holders in the portion of Lower Miranzai above Hangu. In this part of the district the old villages of Bar Abbas Khel, Kotgai, Baliamin, and others are held by the Bangash and Niazi proprietors, but numerous bandas or outlying hamlets have sprung up in their lands which are occupied by Orakzai tenants. The latter are increasing in numbers and in parts will soon out-number the Bangashes. In Upper Miranzai the proportion of Orakzais is much smaller; the majority being confined to the Akhel village of Chappri and the Ali Khel village of Shinawari.
Both Afridis and Orakzais are cramped for land in their own country and gladly settle wherever they can get land in the Kohat and Hangu valleys. They are not very desirable colonists owing to their criminal propensities.
The Zaimushts are nearly all in Upper Miranzai, where they own the large village of Torawari.
The Waziris and Ghilzais are mostly nomads who bring down their flocks at the beginning of the cold weather and move off again in the spring.
After the Pathans in numerical importance come the Awans, numbering 16,080. They are found for the most part in the villages south and east of Kohat and along the Indus. They have probably immigrated at various times from the Rawalpindi district. Most of the Awan villages have been settled for many generations, and there is generally an absence of tradition as to when they arrived. As a rule the Awans do not own distinct villages, but are scattered about among the Pathans.
Sayads number 7,752 and Sheikhs and Koreshis 4,337. The remaining Muhammadan population, including artisans and the shop-keepers in towns and villages, amounts to 24,805,
Awans and the Punjabi speaking portion of the rural population are classed together by the Pathans under the general name of Hindki. As a rule the village artisans, the carpenter, the smith and the potter are Hindki, but in the remoter portions of Teri and Miranzai the artisans more usually claim to be Pathans and have been classified as such.
Hindus and Sikhs at the Census numbered 12,068. Of these 4,201 belonged to the cantonments at Kohat and Thal. The proportion of Hindus to Muhammadans for the whole district excluding cantonments is less than one to twenty. The proportions for the different tahsils are: Kohat, 1 to 18; Hangu, 1 to 12; Teri, 1 to 25.
Most of the leading families of the district have already been mentioned in the historical account of the district. The following remarks contain particulars of their jagir grants, and add a little information as to their existing circumstances. A large number of these families hold a territorial position, nearly the whole district being divided in accordance with their jagirs and original local jurisdictions.
Shahzada Sultan Jan ranks first among the district Darbaris. He is fifth in descent from Taimur Shah. Shahzada Hashim and Shahzada Hassad, grandsons of Taimur Shah, settled at Peshawar about A.D. 1830, where Shahzada Hassad obtained a jagir of Rs. 2,300 front the Sikh Government. On the outbreak of the second Sikh War his son Shahzada Jamhur, the father of Shahzada Sultan Jan, took the British side, and in November 1849 he was appointed to Kohat as an Extra Assistant Commissioner. He was a man of influence and judgment and much relied on by district officers. He died in 1868. On his death Shahzada Sultan Jan was recognized as the head of the family. From June 1860 to March 1872 be served as a tahsildar in the districts of Peshawar and Kohat, and in April 1872 he was made Extra Assistant Commissioner, a position that he still holds. During the Afghan war he was employed in Kuram. After the Khost expedition he was left there by Sir Frederick Roberts as Governor with some Turf militia, but the troops had no sooner left than the Khostwals rose in rebellion, and a force had to be sent back to fetch away the Shahzada and his followers. After this he was employed as Assistant to the Assistant Commissioner in charge of Kuram till October 1880, when hle returned to Kohat.
On 24th May 1881 he was made a CIE in recognition of his services. and in June 1881 he was granted a further jagir of Rs. 1,000 which has been allotted in the Kohat district. As regards the original Sikh jagir of Rs. 2,300, which is situated in the Peshawar district, it was confirmed to the family on annexation in perpetuity. At the Regular Settlement the jagir was assessed at Rs. 3,315. The zemindars had previously paid in kind, but were now given a cash assessment which came into force from kharif 1873. In consideration of the loss occasioned by this change, Government sanctioned an additional jagir of Rs. 685 in favour of the family. This increase has raised the amount of the old jagir to Rs. 4,000, but the additional Rs. 685 has been allotted in the Kohat, not in the Peshawar district. Under the orders of Government the old jagir of Rs. 4,000 and the new jagir of Rs. 1,000 are to be treated as a single grant. The whole is in perpetuity and is to be continued to one direct heir of Shahzada Jamhur to be selected by the Government. The jagir is at present managed by Shahzada Sultan Jan, but nearly the whole of the income is spent in allowances to the different members. Under the terms of the new grant the Government has reserved to itself the power to require the jagirdar for the time being to make suitable allowances to the junior members of the family. The Shahzada has several brothers, most of them being in military or police employment. He has a cousin, Shahzada Mahsud, descended from Shahzada Hashim, who is now acting tahsildar of Kohat.
This chief claims descent from Malik Ako, the Akora chief. Khwaja Muhammad Khan, who was born in 1824, is the posthumous son of the chief Khushal Khan. He was adopted by Musammat Farkhunda, wife of the chief Rasul Khan, who, on the death of the latter in 1844, placed him on the vacant gaddi, in preference to her own son by Rasul Khan. Since then Khwaja Mohammad Khan has been chief of the Teri Khattaks. At annexation he obtained the lease of the Teri tahsil from year to year at Rs. 31,068. In 1850 the amount was lowered to Rs. 25,000, and in 1851 be obtained a lease for five years at Rs. 20,000. In 1855 the lease was granted to him at these rates for life, and in 1858 the grant was confirmed to Khwaja Muhammad Khan and to his heirs in perpetuity. For his services during the late Afghan war the amount payable by Khwaja Muhammad Khan was reduced for his life to Rs. 18,000. No orders have been issued regarding the succession to the Teri chief ship. It will no doubt be treated similarly to the Shakardarra jagir, i.e., continued to a selected heir, who will be bound to make suitable provision for the junior members of the family.
In 1873 Khwaja Muhammad Khan was made a KCSI and was also given the title of Nawab. He has always been distinguished for his steady loyalty to Government. He exercises civil and criminal powers of the second class within the limits of the Teri tahsil and is his own tahsildar. The Nawab has a large family of sons. The eldest, Muzaffar Khan, leads a retired life, but his sons, grandsons to the Nawab, have now reached manhood and appear anxious to come to the front. The second son, Muhammad Zaffar Khan, who is generally treated as the old Nawab's heir, exercises judicial powers, and is his father's principal assistant in carrying on the work of the tahsil. Among the other sons the best known are Ghaffur Khan and Spin Khan. The latter served for some time in Kuram and also accompanied Sir Frederick Roberts to Kabul. There are a multitude of Khanzadas in the Teri country descended from former chief's. They are not as a rule of any mark or of rank entitling them to a chair. The Naibs of Gumbat who are very distantly related, and Zakaria Khan of Lachi, are perhaps the most prominent among them.
The history of the family will be found in the account of the Baizai Bangashes, Appendix I to the Settlement Report. Bahadar Sher Khan was the leading man of the family at annexation. Captain Coke placed him in management of the Kohat pass, and he eventually held charge, not only of all the Adam Khel sections, but also of the Daulatzais, Sipaiahs and Sturi Khels. As manager of the Pass he first received a grant of Rs. 100 a month, which was increased in 1858 to Rs. 200. In November 1853 the village of Mir Ahmad Khel assessed at Rs. 1,000 was granted in jagir for life, Rs. 900 to Bahadar Sher Khan and Rs. 100 to his brother Ata Khan. In 1858 the jagir to Bahadar Sher Khan was made up to Rs. 3,000 in perpetuity, and in 1862 he was given a further increase of Rs. 350 for life. In 1877 he was given the title of Nawab, and he also enjoyed judicial powers. He died in August 1880. Rustam Khan, the eldest son of the deceased Nawab, has now succeeded to the jagir, though not to the charge of the Pass and without the title enjoyed by his father. He has been made an Honorary Magistrate. The jagir arrangements have not yet been finally settled.
Ata Khan, the brother of the deceased Nawab, was at one time Naib Tahsildar and afterwards Commandant of Border Police. For many years he took an important share in the Pass management under Bahadar Sher Khan, and when the latter died in August 1880, Ata Khan was temporarily appointed to fill his place. He carried on the work till June 1882, when the tribes on this part of the border were placed directly under the Deputy Commissioner. The Adam Khels and adjoining tribes kept very quiet during the Afghan war, and latterly assisted in supplying Carriage, being attracted by the liberal rates of pay allowed by Government. In acknowledgment of his services Ata Khan was given a life jagir of Rs. 1,200. He has also a tenth share (=Rs. 100) also for life in the village of Mir Ahmad Khel, besides some mafi mills and plots. He is not now in Government employment, but has been made an Honorary Magistrate.
The history of this family is given in Appendix II to the Settlement Report. On the murder of Ghulam Haidar Khan he was succeeded in the tahsildari by his brother Muzaffar Khan. The title of Khan was confirmed to his son Allahyar Khan, then a minor. Allahyar Khan, however, has always remained in the background, and Muzaffar Khan has practically been Khan of Miranzai. In 1859, a pension of Rs. 400, formerly enjoyed by his father, was confirmed to Allahyar Khan to be permanently attached to the chief ship. Some mafi lands (assessed now at Rs. 366) were granted on similar conditions. Allahyar Khan is now Superintendent of Salt Mines, drawing a salary of Rs. 100 a month.
Muzaffar Khan, for services during the mutiny, received a Jagir of Rs. 500. This is now much more valuable, being assessed at Rs. 1,564. It is hereditary, Government having the right to select a heir. In 1881 Muzaffar Khan was granted a further assignment of Rs. 1,200 and a sumptuary allowance of Rs. 1,200 for life. He also enjoys the lease of the Government lands in Hangu and some adjoining villages. In the greater portion of this estate he takes rent in kind. In some of the smaller villages he gets cash malikana. The lease is a very valuable one, and is probably worth Rs. 3000 a year. It is held during pleasure of Government and can be cancelled at any time.
Muzaffar Khan's income may therefore be roughly put as follows:
Thus totalling to Rs. 8,464.
He has in addition his pay as tahsildar Rs. 250+25=275 per mensem, and a small personal allowance of Rs. 60 per annum.
Muhammad Amin Khan, a cousin of Muzaffar Khan's, was for long Thanadar and Political Agent of Upper Miranzai. In 1858 he was granted a jagir of Rs. 100 for life in recognition of his local services during the mutiny. Muhammad Amin Khan died in 1880. His eldest son, Usman Khan, then succeeded to his political position. A jagir of Rs. 2,400, in which the former life jagir of Rs. 100 is merged, was granted to Usman Khan in 1882 for life in consideration of his own and his father s services during the Afghan war. From this jagir, which has not yet been allotted Usman Khan has to pay an annual allowance of Rs. 400 each to his brothers Said Khan and Akbar Khan.
The history of this family has been given in the account of the Sagri Khattaks, Appendix IV to the Settlement Report. At annexation Ghulam Mustafa Khan, father of the present Chief, was in possession as jagirdar of one-fourth of the revenue of the Makhad estate in the Pindi district and of the entire revenues of Shakardarra. He also enjoyed a percentage on the income from certain salt mines. The jagir was confirmed to the family in perpetuity in 1850. After the mutiny the salt percentage was commuted to a fixed pension of Rs. 1,000 paid out of the income from the Malgin Salt Mines, also in perpetuity. In 1881 it was ruled that the jagir was to descend to a single selected member. Government, however, reserving the right to make suitable allowances in case of necessity to junior members. The eldest son, Faqir Muhammad, is the selected heir. There is a violent quarrel between Faqir Muhammad and his father on one side and two of the younger brothers, who object to the arrangement.
The Khan's allowances are as follows:
Thus totalling to Rs. 3,955.
This Chief is a scion of the senior branch of the family of the Akora Chiefs. In the scramble that followed the Sikh conquest of Peshawar he obtained the Nilab tappa in jagir. During the Second Sikh War he sided with the Sikhs. He was, however, confirmed at annexation in possession of his jagir. The jagir was valued at Rs. 2,178, and consisted of ten villages, of which three lying east of the Indus were afterwards transferred to the Pindi district. In 1852 this jagir was increased to Rs. 3,000 by a cash grant of Rs. 822 for life, to be reconsidered after his death with a view to the grant being perpetual during the good behaviour of his ancestors. And the three villages transferred to Pindi were excluded from the jagir, and in lieu of them a cash grant was allowed of Rs. 400, also in perpetuity. In consideration of his services during the mutiny he sent some levies to Nowshera, Jafar Khan was given a further life pension of Rs. 822.
Up to the present Settlement Jafar Khan took Battai in his jagir. He also realised a large income from miscellaneous cesses. At Settlement the villages were assessed in cash, and the cesses for the most part abolished. Jafar Khan has petitioned to have the loss occasioned by the change made good to him. The loss has been estimated at Rs. 2,804. He at present holds a jagir now assessed at Rs. 1,714, and pensions aggregating Rs. 22,044; in all Rs. 3,758 a year. No orders have been issued regarding the succession to this jagir. His son Fateh Muhammad now manages the jagir, Jafar Khan himself being over 70 years of age.
Jafar Khan died on 10th January 1583. His son Fateh Muhammad Khan has been appointed to succeed him in the jagir and hereditary pension of Rs. 400 The first pension of Rs. 822 has also been confirmed to Fateh Muhammad Khan for life. The mutiny pension of Rs. 822 has been resumed. A lump sum of Rs. 1,500 was allowed as compensation for loss of right to collect revenue in kind.
Afzal Khan, like Jafar Khan, belongs to the senior branch of the family of the Akora Chiefs. Before annexation he distinguished himself by murdering the chief, Khawas Khan, who has been mentioned in the account of the Teri Khattaks. At annexation be was found in possession of the Khwarra and Zira tappas and of part of Pattiala. He was ousted in 1851 for mismanagement, when he retired to Jamal Garhi; where he has since resided. In 1852, his former jagir valued at Rs. 1,400 was confirmed to Afzal Khan in perpetuity. The income was made up to Rs. 3,000 by a cash grant of Rs. 1,600 for life to be reconsidered at his death. In 1854, when the jagir was taken under direct management, it was decided that he should receive only half the jagir realisations. These amounted to Rs. 700, but have been increased by the new Settlement to Rs. 812-8. In 1858 he was allowed an additional pension of Rs. 822 on account of mutiny services. He at one time received a share of the income from the Khwarra and Zira raid's. This was commuted to a fixed sum of Rs. 395 a year, in 1873.
He now enjoys: Half revenue of jagir villages, Rs. 812; fixed allowance from rakhs, Rs. 395; pension paid from Peshawar, Rs. 1,600; pension paid from Kohat, Rs. 822. Total Rs. 3,629. The jagir grant is in perpetuity, and presumably the rakh allowance also. As regards the cash pension of Rs. 2,422, Rs. 1,000 of this pension was to be continued in perpetuity to a selected heir during loyal conduct. Afzal Khan belongs rather to the Peshawar than to the Kohat district.
Biland Khan is a great grandson of the chief Saadat Khan. Before annexation his uncle Murtaza Khan held two villages, Khushalgarh and Khwaza Khel in jagir. These villages were situated in the large jagir hold by Afzal Khan, and previous to 1854 Murtaza Khan had been obliged to struggle for his rights which Afzal Khan wished to override. Murtaza Khan died in January 1871, but the succession to the jagir had been previously confirmed to Biland Khan in 1858. Biland Khan resides at Amir in the Khwarra. He holds for life only, but the jagir will probably be continued in the family. He gets a percentage of 7 per cent of the income from the Khwarra jungles, of which his uncle Karim Khan is Superintendent. The jagir is assessed at Rs. 290.
Mir Mubarak was the head of a family of Banuri Syeds, who came from Hindustan and settled at Kohat some generations ago. They are now numerous and influential. Saidan Shah, the father of Mir Mubarak Shah, took a leading part as a lessee in the affairs of the Teri country during the period that followed on the death of Khushal Khan (A.D. 1824). In the account of the district under Captain Coke, Mir Mubarak Shah has been mentioned as Captain Coke's right hand man. He was killed in the mutiny. Captain Coke gave him the lease of a large tract of land now forming the village of Jarma. This was declared at Settlement to be Crown property. The profits from it probably amount to Rs. 4,000 or Rs. 5,000 a year. The lease since Mir Mubarak Shah's death has been held by his brother Badshah. Badshah was for long Inspector of Police at Kohat. He was supposed at the time of the Jawaki outbreak to have intrigued with the section opposed to Bahadar Sher Khan, and was removed to the Peshawar district. He has since retired from Government service. He is a man of considerable influence at Kohat and has recently been made an Honorary Magistrate. Said Ahmad Shah, the son of Mir Mubarak Shah, was also at one time a Deputy Inspector in the Police, but threw up the appointment. He has been granted the village of Bhawalgarh, jama Rs. 200, in perpetuity, and also gets a pension of Rs. 426 for life in consideration of his father's services. Said Ali Shah, a brother of Badshah's, is now Inspector of Police at Kohat.
These are the descendants of Haji Bahadar, whose shrine at Kohat has already been mentioned in the general account of the district. Haji Bahadar lived in the time of Aurangzeb. His descendants form a semi-priestly class, known as the Mian Khels, and are very numerous at Kohat, where there is a regular Mian Khel quarter. They hold the village of Mian Khel assessed at Rs. 1,059 in jagir. This is divided between some 150 sharers in accordance with their proprietary possession. Imam Shah, Yusaf Shah, and Bakir Shah are the most leading men among them.
Ghulam Haidar Khan's family came from Seistan, and settled at Peshawar in the time of the King Taimur Shah. His father Sikandar Khan was killed fighting on the side of Sardar Yar Muhammad at the battle of Zaida (A.D. 1828). Ghulam Haidar Khan after his father's death came to Kohat and entered the service of Sardar Sultan Mohammed Khan. He was given various jagirs, it being the common custom in those days to grant assignments of land revenue instead of giving a fixed salary. After the Second Sikh War he retired with Sultan Muhammad Khan to Kabul. He afterwards returned to Kohat and Captain Coke gave him the lease of a large tract of land round Shahpur, which he has since held. These lands were decided at Settlement to be Crown property. Ghulam Haidar Khan has two intelligent sons, Sher Mohammed Khan and Malik Jan. These served during the Afghan war in Kuram, assisting in political and other work connected with the administration of the valley. Ghulam Haidar Khan has never held any appointment under Government. He lives on the profits from his lease, which probably average Rs. 5,000 a year.
Sheikh Allahdad was a contemporary of the great Khushal Khan (time of Aurangzeb) and gave his name to a shrine and village in the Zira valley. His descendants hold the village, which is assessed at Rs. 300 in jagir. At annexation this was a great asylum for robbers, and the leading Mians are still employed to a considerable extent in getting back stolen property from the neighbouring Jawakis.
These are Jilani Syeds of the Sunni persuasion. The family came from Makhad four generations ago, and took up their abode in the Jangal Suburb of Kohat. They obtained small grants of land all through the Kohat tappas. These were confirmed to them revenge-free, and are still held by them. They are now assessed at Rs. 172. The family also held cash grants aggregating Rs. 500, but these have been reduced by resumption to Rs. 300, lately increased to Rs.400. The family is getting very numerous, and since the death of Phul Badshah (in 1878) has no recognised head. They possess a very extended influence, and are much reverenced by some of the Orakzai tribes beyond the border. They have been given the village of Mian Mela in the Mishti country, and hold the village of Reysi in jagir from the Khattak Nawab.
This is a Shia family which used to play a leading part in Hangu politics. Sayad Hasan Raza, the father of Sayad Afzal, is suspected of having instigated the murder of the chief Ghulam Haidar Khan in 1855. Captain Coke gave Sayad Afzal the lease of the village Bar Abbas Khel, but he was deprived of this at Settlement, and has lately been muted in compensation a cash allowance of Rs. 300 for life. He has also a pension of Rs. 200, sanctioned in July 1870. This family is generally on bad terms with Muzaffar Khan. though lately the Quarrel has been made up.
These are Shias, and belong to the faction opposed to the Khan of Hangu. Twahir Shah was a leading man. He was succeeded by his son Mir Afzal, also a man of influence, but who has lately died. Bakir Shah is now head of the family. The family enjoys an inam of Rs. 100 a year.
This is a young fellow who is the head of a Shia family, possessing considerable influence among the neighbouring hill tribes, especially among the Sipaiahs.
These are a numerous body, the descendants of Sheikh Yusaf, and the guardians of his shrine. The trees and groves all through the Chili tract are under the protection of this shrine, and any one cutting down a growing tree, or even removing a dead one, is said to incur the displeasure of the saint, the fear of which has hitherto been sufficient to preserve them from the axe. Faqir Hussein and Hasan Ali are the leading men among these Koreshis.
This voting man is manager of the Pir Fateh Shah shrine at Sherkot. The tomb is a white building on the top of the Sherkot hill, and is visible for a long distance. The shrine is revered by the Mani Khels and Sipaiahs and other hill tribes. Considerable mafi grants are attached to it. These had been resumed, but have been regranted at this Settlement.
The section may be well concluded by mentioning a few of the more leading lambardars in the different tappas.