|D.N. MACKENZIE, A Standard Pashto|
Among modern Iranian languages, other than Persian, Pashto shares pride of place with Kurdish as regards both area of territory and number of speakers. Both languages, moreover, are prolific in dialects, but there any similarity ends. The features differentiating one Kurdish dialect from the next are mainly morphological. The differences are also progressive, in the sense that when dialect II differs from dialect I in only one feature, the next further dialect III will differ from I in both this and some other feature, or features. It can be said, in other words, that the extent of the morphological differences between any number of Kurdish dialects is roughly proportional to the distances between them. One obvious effect of this phenomenon is that to this day no standard Kurdish has emerged as a literary vehicle with any wide scope or vogue.
|H. PENZL., Western Loan Words in Pashto|
|One of the most interesting lexical problems in the modern languages of Asia is the influence of western culture and modern technology on the vocabulary. Pashto is the language spoken mostly in the east, south, and southwest of Afghanistan, the northwest of West Pakistan and in the border area between the two countries; it is beside Persian the official language of Afghanistan, but only a regional language in Pakistan, which favors Urdu. A major part of the learned and scientific vocabulary of Pashto has been derived from the Persian-Arabic tradition, and the number and status of these loans troubled lexicographers in the past. This study will deal with the loanwords from English, French, and German found in the modern literary language and in the educated speech of Afghanistan.|
|H. MAHMOOD., Deforestation in NWFP|
According to Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) there are an estimated 187 million ha of plantation world wide, representing 5% of global forest area. Asia has by far the largest forest plantation estate of any region, accounting for 62% of the world's forest plantation. The ten countries with the largest reported areas of forest plantation together account for 80% of the Global forest condition area. About 60% of the forest plantations are located in only four countries, i.e. China, India, Russian Federation and the United States of America.
|V. MINORSKY., The Khalaj West of the Oxus|
|Muslim authors agree that the Khalaj are one of the earliest tribes to have crossed the Oxus. In addition to I. Khurdadhbih whom we have quoted above, Istakhri (circa AD 930) says: "The Khalaj are a class of Turks who in the days of the old (fi qadim al-ayyam) came to the country stretching between India and the districts of Sijistan, behind Ghur.|
|P. G. KREYENBROEK., Folk Poetry in Iranian Languages|
|The term 'folk poetry' can be properly used for texts which have some characteristics marking them as poetry and belong to the tradition of the common people, as against the dominant 'polite' literary culture of the area. Given the breadth of this definition no comprehensive, detailed study of all folk poetry in Iranian languages is possible. All that our present state of knowledge allows is a general survey of characteristic aspects of the most important types and genres of folk poetry in Iranian languages. Little is known about pre-Islamic Iranian folk poetry. This article will therefore focus on those modern traditions which have been most fully described, i.e., on Persian, Tajiki, Kurdish, Pashto, and Baluchi folk poetry, with some reference to Ossetic.|