Shalmani's predominantly live in Shalman Valley in Khyber Agency near Peshawar where they share their land with the Afridi's, Shinwari's and Malagori's. Their sub-tribes are the Alim Zai, Tarak Zai, and Kam Shalman. These people have strong relationships with Mohmand's. The Shalmani's are divided into two parts, Kam Shalman and the Loy Shalman, of which Loy Shalman has a population of more than 30,000 and is located 25 km from Landi Kotal.
According to Khan Roshan Khan of Swabi in his famous book "Tazkira-e-Pathan", Shalmani are of 'Banu Bakhtar' lineage from Israel who were living in an area called "Shalman" in Syria. These Banu Bakhtar were landlords of Shalman, Ainab, and Baisood in Syria but were soon exiled by Assyrian King Shalmaneser I, II, III and IV to Khorasan. The period of exile of Israel from Syria was 771 B.C to 597 BC. Shalmaneser here refers to Shalman according to the Bible (Hosea: 10-14). They were also known as Shalmani in Khorasan because of their ancestry in Syria.
The Bible states in Hosea:10-14 "as Shalmaneser destroyed betharbel". Many Christian and Jewish historians opine that Shalman is a contracted form of Shalmaneser. Hence Shalmaneser and Shalman are one entity. Shalmaneser himself was an Assyrian King(s). There were four Assyrian kings were Shalmaneser I, II, III and IV. The same name for all the king's denote that Shalmaneser was the name of their tribe and not their original names. According to well known Jewish Historian Dr. M. D. Magee, Shalman is jewish for "Solomon" the son of David (Hazrat Daud AS).
In the present Kurdistan of Iran, there is an area "Shalman", which means that, it is that ancient name of Shalmanis' residency (Shalman) in Syria, and that they were brought this name with them when they exiled by Assyrians and Babylonians. Another proof of the exile of Shalmanis from Syria's Shalman is that, there are four largest rivers in Iran and one of them is the river "Shalman Rud". In Persian and Pashto (Pakhto) language "Rud" means the river, therefore it is known as river Shalman.
Shilmani's also live in other places like Peshawar, Hashtnagar, Malakand Agency, Swat, Shangla, Dir, Bajaur, Buner, Haripur in Pashtunkhwa, Kabul, Karman & Tora Bora in Afghanistan, and Tehran, Isfahan and Gilan in Iran. There are some well known scientists in Iran & Pakistan in different fields like chemistry, biology & nuclear sciences. In Iran's Atomc Energy Commission are known scientists A. M. Shilmani, A Kuchaki Shilmani, & Manzour Shilmani. Similarly, important Shilmani's in Pakistan include former MPA Nek Amal Khan, Jahangir Khan, Rahat Khan and Senator Abdul Malik Shilmani. Many Shilman's serve in the Militia force (FC) and the Pakistan Army. When Pakistan had not yey come into being, Bacha Khan Shalmani of Sakha Kot Malakand Agency, was the prominent figure of the Shalmani tribe and was a famous politician. Up to this day shalmani's are going side by side with other Pashtun tribes and are serving the Pakhtoon nation and the humanity in different fields like politics, education, economy, religion, defence and agriculture etc.