Chronology of Afghan Rulers :: Khyber.ORG

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Chronology of Afghan Rulers

Name Year Span Notes
Mirwais Khan Hotak 1709-1715 Held hostage by Safavids. Later dies natural death & gives government to his son Mir Mahmood
Mir Mahmood Hotak 1715-1729 Dethroned by Iranian Nadir Shah of Afshar
Nadir Shah Afshar 1729-1747 Assassinated near Kandahar on booty laden return from India
Ahmad Shah Abdali 1747-1773 Founder & elected ruler of Afghanistan after a nine day "Loya Jirga".
Taimur Shah Abdali 1773-1793 Died as a result of civil war between his twenty sons
Zaman Shah Abdali 1793-1800 Dethroned by his wazir & imprisoned
Shah Mahmood 1800-1818  
Sultan Ali Shah 1818-1819 Son of Taimur Shah
Sultan Ayub Shah 1819-1826 Deposed Sultan Ali Shah. He himself got deposed later on and was killed
Amir Dost Muhammad Khan 1826-1838 Painda Khan's son. His government was overthrown by Shah Shuja with help of British & Sikhs
Shah Shuja 1838-1842 Killed along with British Captain Alexander Burnes on retreat from Afghanistan following civil unrest caused by Dost Muhammad's sons
Amir Dost Muhammad Khan 1842-1863 Signs peace treaty with British. Goes to conquer Herat from Iranians before dying in 1863 which leaves his twelve sons fighting for the throne
Amir Sher Ali Khan 1863-1878 Inclined towards the Russians. British moved in to dethrone him. Consequently, his son took control of affairs
Amir Yaqub Ali Khan 1878-1880 Dethroned & exiled by his nephew living in Tashkent, Tajikistan
Amir Abdur Rahman Khan 1880-1901 Died a natural death. Left government to his son
Amir Habibullah Khan 1901-1919 Worked for modernization. Assassinated by either the Bolsheviks or internal elements resisting change
Nasrullah Khan 1919-1919 Dethroned by his nephew
Amanullah Khan 1919-1929 Flees Afghanistan after civil unrest
Habibullah Ghazi Khan (Bacha Saqo) 1929-1929 Deposed & executed (hanged) in October 1929. He was the first Tajik ever to rule Afghanistan
Muhammad Nadir Shah 1929-1933 Grandson of Dost Muhammad Khan. He was assassinated in 1933
Muhammad Zahir Shah 1933-1953 Flees to Rome after civil unrest
Sardar Muhammad Daud 1953-1963 Resigned from government
Sardar Muhammad Daud 1973-1978 Overthrown in coup & killed by People's Democratic Party
Noor Muhammad Taraki 1978-1979 Assassinated
Hafizullah Amin 1979-1979 Assassinated by Parchamites
Babrak Karmal 1980-1986  
Dr. Najibullah 1986-1992 Forced to leave government. Later beaten to death by the Taleban in 1996
Sibghatullah Mujadadi 1992-1992  
Barhanudin Rabbani 1992-1996 Dethroned by Taleban. Went into exile in Tajikistan. By ethnicity, he was a Tajik.
Mullah Muhammad Omar 1996-2001 Went underground & left control to Americans & their sponsored government.
Hamid Karzai 2001-present